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188 



EHHceftcKHe mbiKH 



TyHryccKoe Ha3BaHHe dandri). Kctm Ha3weaiOT ioroB ToribKO juyyn ~~ juyeti, b to BpeMii 
KaK caMH K>m Ha3biBanH ee6« kmd'eq, B nepenHcax XX b. iorH yHHTbiBajiHCb KaK KeTbi. 

1.1.2. K3.5L nepBOHa^anbHO paccMaTpHBajiea KaK cwmckhh iiMajieKT KeTCKoro JObnca. B 
60-x rr. Hauiero ctojicthh b KerojiorHH yTBepnHjica, oflHaKO, mrmjx, corjiacHO KOTOpoMy 
ioroB cjie^yeT paccMaTpHBaTb KaK oco6yio eHHcewcKyio Hapoiwocrb, a hx jbmk — KaK ca- 

MOCTOHTeJIbHblH eHHCeHCKHft H3WK, o6pa3yK>lUHH BMCCTe C KCTCKHM 6jlH3KOpOflCTBeHHyiO 

rpynny b cocTaae chhcchckoh H3Wkoboh oSiuhocth. 

1.1.3. Cm. 1.1.1, 

1.2.0. JlHHrBoreorpa<|)HHecKHe CBeaeHHfl. 

1.2.1. Flo HCTopHHeeKHM MaHHbiM Moacno npeanonaraTb, mto K>.a. 6bui pacnpocrpaHeH ot 
r. EHHceftcKa m p. flyrmec, BtiaaaiomeH b EHHceft HenaneKO ot c. BoporoBa, h 6mji npea- 

CTaBJICH HCCKO/lbKHMH iJHaJieKTaMM. 

1.3.0. CoUHOJlMHrBHCTHHeCKHe CBefleHH5I. 

1.3.1. K).«. cjiyacujt no cepe^HHbi 70- x rr. XX b. cpe#cTBOM odmemui b 6wTy y npeaeTa- 
BHTejieft CTapuiero noKOJieHHfl. B Hacroamee BpeMH cpchctbom o6meHHa y toroB cnyxm 

pyCCKHH 5I3MK. 

1.3.2. O HaJIH4HH B npOOIJlOM HaiWHaJieKTHblX <j)OpM K).*. CBeilCHHH HeT, 

1.3.3. y4e6Ho~ne#arorH**ecKoro cTaTyca lO.a. He HMeer. 
1.4.0. FlHCbMeHHocTH y ioroB hct h He 6buio. 

1.5.0. O fiepHOMH3aUHH HCTOpHH K).5i. cBeueHHH hct. 

1.6.0. Moxho npe^nOJiaraTb, hto OTjjeJibHbie BHyrpHcrpyKTypHbie oco6chhocth FO.m. o6y- 
cjioBJieHbi .miHrejibHbiMH KOHTaKTaMH ioroB h cejibKynoB Ha p. KeTb h p. Cwm. 
2.0.0. JlHHrBHCTHHeeKaa xapaKTepHCTHKa. 
2.1.0. <I>oHOJiorH^ecKHe CBejjeHHH. 
2.1.1. 

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Jim K>rcKoro (KaK u nm KeTCKoro) BOKajiH3Ma xapaKTepHbi cneuHcfwqecKHe niacHbie 
cpewero pa#a % a, KOTopwe He o6HapyaceHbi b flpyrax eHHceftcKHx »3biKax. 



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no cnoco6y 
o6pa30BaiiHx 


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189 



2.1.2. B K).fl, o6Hapy>KeHo Hen»ipc c/roroBbix Tona co cueiiyiomeft xapaicrepHCTHKoft: 



IlpH3HaKH 


Tohw 


nppBUH 


Bropovi 


Tpemft 


HeTBCpTWft 


Bwcokmh pcmcTp 


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Han6ojiee 4enco tohw peanH3yioTC5i b H30JinpoBaHHbix onHocjioacHbix cjiosax; b mhoh>- 
:jio^KHbix cjioBax ohm Moryr coxpaHATbca JiHiiib b yuapHbix c/iorax. B noane^HeM cjiynae 
wapeime HBjmercH no cymecTBy Mepoft hojihotw peanH3auHH TOHa. HHoe nojioxeHHe Ha- 
wiKxaaeTca npn peajiH3ai*HH #Byx oco6wx KpaTKOCJioacHbix aKueHTHwx THnoB: npH o#hom H3 
mx Ha6j«0AaeTCH noBbinieHHe ocHOBHoro TOHa roiioca Ha nepBOM (yaapHOM) cjiore, npH 
ipyroM — na nocjiejweM wm npeflnooncuHeM (yuapHOM) cjiore npH oOTHaKOBOH hhtchchb- 
iocth bo Bcex cjiorax: ddnyg 'ho>kh\ kanca f KypHTenbHafl Tpy6Ka\ nepBbiH ran npoH3Bo- 
jht BrienaTJieHHe .UHHaMHHecKoro oioBecHoro yaapeHHH. 

2.1.3. KaqecTBeHHaa h KOJiHHecTBeHHaH xapaKTepHCTHKa niacHbix 3aBHCHT: (1) ot no3H- 
iHH no oTHOiueHHio k yaapeHHio (b 6e3y^apHOH no3HUHH npej^cTaBJieHO He 10, a ceMb mac- 
ttix — e, i, e, y, w, o, a); (2) ot c|)OHeTHHecKOH xap^KTepHCTHKH cjioroBbix tohob (nepBbiH 

'j. TpeTHH TOHbl CJOKaiOT, a BTOpOH H HeTBepTblH paCIUHpJHOT BOKaNHHCCKHH <|)OHeMHbIs![ 6a- 

|Hc): 2 de? *o3epo\ mh. h. x det}\ 4 ya:j f Jiocb\ mh. h. 3 ye:n. Hon bjihhhhcm tohob bo3hhjuih 
raoce HtTopHnecKHe MepeaoBaHHtf aftnaymoro xapaKTepa rana l cip f co6aKa\ mh. i. 2 ca?p; 
l ses f peHKa', mh. h. 4 sa:s. 

fljiHiejibHocTb rjiacHbix hocht b K).a. b SojibiiiHHCTBe cjiynaeB npocoitHMecKHH xapaKTep, 
ho HaG^ioflaioTca h cjiynaH ee (f)OHOJiorH3auHH Ha ypoBHe rjiacHbix cJ)ohcm ( l ej f cocHa' — 
l e:j "oerpoB'). IlpocoOTMecKHH xapaKTep hocht h ?, noflBJiaioiUHifCii nuuib b otkpwtwx 
cnorax co btopwm tohom: 2 yo 7 'capaHa', H ? e jia6a3\ 

B KOHcoHaHTH3Me K).». mo>kho oTMeTHTb c/ie#yiowHe (JxmeTHHecKne HBJieHHji: (1) o3boh~ 
qeHHe rjiyxHX uiyMHbix corjiacHbix nepea b, d, d' (Kses 'peKa' — sezbes *B#ojib peKH'); 
(2) oniyuieHHe 3Bohkhx uiyMHbix coniacHbix nepea uryMHbiMH niyxHMH (ad ode 'Gojiht* — 
at'kade 'tm 6ojteeuib'); (3) cnHpaHTH3auHH uiyMHbix cmwmhmx b ho3huhh ucymy macHbiMH 
( l yup, mh. h. yufyn 'Kocan'); (4) accHMHJWHH5! cornacHbix y, f, b, t, s no MecTy h cnoco6y 
apTHKyjiauHH (irruf < iryut' 'uraMaHb!', ennorj < enyog *cero,m«i\ yempan <yemfan *6e3 
aceHbf h t. jx.)\ (5) reMHHauHS corjiacHbix nojx B03,ueHCTBHeM 2-ro Tona (battat 'jihuo' < 
2 ba ? t f Jio6' -♦- 2 a ? t f KOCTb'); (6) nocjie k, q He mo^cct BCTpeqarbCfl n\ b stoh no3HUHH nojiB- 
jwercH TOJibKo t)\ nocjie r, s t I, y, n He MoaceT BCTpenaTbOi ^, BCTpenaeTCii TOJibKO n: yokq 
'cochobwh 6op', yoyn 'sBes^bi', catn 'MyxbH*, besn 'saHUbi', lomn 'nonjiaBKH' h t. m. 

2.1.4. Ciiora HMeiOT b K).h. c/re^yioinyio cTpyKTypy: V, CV, VC, CVC. B ejiy^ae npe<|>H- 
rapOBaHHK JiHMHo-cy6'beKTHbix noKa3aTejiefl k rjiarony h b cjiy^ae o6pa30BaHHH npHTH)Ka- 
Te/ibHbix (|)opM HMeHH Moryr BCTpeHaTbCH c/iorH co cTpyKTypoft CCV, CCVC, XOTH K).H., 
KaK h KercKHH, o6wmho He TepnHT cKonjieHHM corjiacHbix b nanajie h KOHue cjiora: u 
kcajge f Tw xo,aHUib', plet 'moh mjqk*. Ciie^yeT eme OTMeTHTb, hto lorcKHe comacHbie /', m> 
n, n, g t r, p f f BWCTynaioT, KaK npaBHJio, TOJibKo b pojih c|)HHajieft, b, f, d, d\ I — TOJibKo 

B pOJIH HHHUHaJiett, H JIHUlb k t t f % t S, I BCTpeHaiOTCfl H B TOH, H B flpyTOH n03HUH«X. 

2.2.0. Mop(|)OHOJiorHHecKHe cBefleHHJi. 

2.2.1. B K).h. KopHeBbie h cJiy^ce6Hbie Mop<J)eMbi, KaK npaBHJio, omhocjio^khh h hmciot 
CTpyKTypy V, C, CV, VC, CVC. flsycJioacHbie Mopc|>eMbi bocxomht HCTopHHecKH k cJio)KHbiM 



POCCHHCKAfl AKAflEMHfl HAYK 
HHCTHTYT fl3bIK03HAHHfl 





IS IP A 



Uaxeoa3uamcKue 

K3UKU 



/, MMTEAbCTBO 
«t4HAPMK» 

MocKBa 1997 



TjiaBHaa peflaiuiHOHHaa KOJUieniH: 



B. H. Rpi^eea (npeaceflaxejib), B. M. Cojinu^es, \H. M. Tojicmou\ 

PeztaKiiHonnaH KOJuieniH xoMa: 
A. H. Bojioduu (otb. peaaKTop), H. E. Baxmuu, A, A. KuOpuK 

PcnaKTOpbi: 
T. K). jKdanoea, H. B. Pozoea, O. M. PoMauoea 



HacToamee H3,naHHe ocymecxBJieHO npw uojmepacKe Pocchhckoio FyMaHHiapHnio 
^ Hay^Horo Ooi^a (npoeKTM 94-06-19711 h 96-0446189) 

fl3biKH MHpa. TlaJieoa3HaTCKHe shmkh. M.: H3naxejm>cxBO «Hhmphk»> 1996. — 2M e 

HacToamaa Ktuira — o i iepe/moH tom MnoroTOMHoro aHUHicnoneitMHecKoro mmmm «fl3MKH MHpa» (< » , n >Ubi- 
KW EBpaiHH»), nonroTaanHBaeMoro b Hhcthtvtc jobiicoiHaHRJi PAH. HanHMft tom ormcbiBaeT bcc stink n k iopwe 
npHHHro oinocHTfc k naueoa?MaTCKHM. C'oBpeMCHHhie najieoa3HaTW — npeanojio)KHTejii>HO iiotomkh apt -Bifeitmero 
Hace.icHH^ Aihh. KpynHeftuiHe JObiKO&bie ccmmi. KOTopwe BKJiiOHaioTCJi b cocraB naicoainaTCKHX, — ciiiicciicKasi. 
'lyKOTCKo-KawmaTCKaH m 3CKHMOccKo-aneyTCKaii. Bee craTbH TOMa HatiMcaiib! b cootbctctbhh c Tttnanonmcckii opu 
CHTHpoBaHHOH exeMoft, Hcnojib3yeMoft bo ncex BbiiiycKax aaHHoro mmnnn. 3ra cxe.sta RicuoHaet couim uimihhcih- 
neeicyio, /waxpoHH«iecicyK> h cHHXpoHHMecKyio cipyxTypHyK) xapaicrepHCTHKy onncbtBaeMoro sobiKa. O.iimi iiamt 
caHbi BejiymHMH najieoa3HaTOBejtaMH. Kmtra o/tHoBpeMemto npe/tcraBJiaeT co6oft m (f>yHflaMeHTa,ibnuH -i;»y;i. h 
cnpaBOHHoe loaaHHe. Ona aapecoBaiia cnenHanHCTaM no najieoaiHaTCKmi H3H*aM, a Taoce umpoKOM} Kpyn 
HHraTeneH, BKJixraaa JiHHniHCTOB pa3HWX cncuHaribHocTeft, hctopmkob, comio:iofoH. 3THorpa<|)OB. wpucroB. 
jKypHa;incioB ( yHHTeJiett h scex HHTepecvKHUHXCM snbiicaMH CeBepa Pocchh. 

Languages of the World. Paleoasiatic languages. 

This book is the fourth volume of the multivolume encyclopedia "Languages of the World" (the 1-ui.p >a series). 
being prepared in the Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The present volume u^enbes all 
languages commonly attributed to Paleoasiatic. Modern speakers of Paleoasiatic languages are supposed to be 
descendants of the ancient population of Asia. The largest linguistic families included into Paleoasiatic are Yeni- 
seian, Chukchi- Kamchatkan, and Eskimo- Aleut. All articles in the volume arc written in accordance with a standard 
typologically-oriented template, used in all volumes of the encylopedia. This template imposes sociolinguistic. 
diachronic, and synchronic structural characterizations upon individual languages. The articles are written by the 
leading Paleoasiatic scholars. The book is intended both as a fundamental study and as a reference source It is 
addressed to specialists in Paleoasiatic languages, as well as to a broad audience including linguists of various 
specializations, historians, sociologists, ethnographers, lawyers, journalists, school teachers, and everyone interested 
in the languages of Russia, as well as Northern Eurasia in general. 



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ISBN 5-85759-046-9 



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